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DECK THE HOLIDAY'S: 08/04/11

Thursday, August 4, 2011

THE HISTORY OF PIZZA!!



   Pizza is one of my favorite foods, it's probably alot of other peoples favorites too.  Especially here in the U.S.  I thought this story of one of America's favorite foods just to break away from the stuff that happens each and every day.  It's not just a Italian favorite, but also probably one of most Americans top foods to eat.
   The history of pizza is cloudy at best, with a variety of theories and speculation. Some claim it is based on the pita bread found in the Mid-East. There is also a theory that pizza came from the unleavened bread "matzo" brought to Rome by Italian legionnaires. Others insist, pizza evolved from the famous "foccacia" served in Rome about 1,000 years ago, as a snack. Another theory is that pizza was brought to Italy by Greeks, during the first century.





    There may be as many theories about the origins of pizza as there are different types of pizza!
    There is agreement that pizza may have been developed by peasants in Naples, Italy. This early pizza consisted of flattened bread dough with olive oil, tomatoes, and mozzarella cheese. Tomatoes were discovered in the "New World" and were for centuries, thought to be poisonous. A peasant may have tried to add bulk to his pizza by using the devils fruit. The first "pizza joint" was Port' Alba, opened in Naples in 1830.   This restaurant served pizza baked in ovens made from lava rock.






    Pizza, as we know it, is credited to one Raffaele Esposito of Naples. In 1889, to honor a visit by King Umberto I and Queen Margherita, he created a special pizza which resembled the Italian flag. The pizza consisted of basil (greeen), mozzarella, (white), and tomatoes (red). This dish sets the standard for our modern day pizza. This patriotic pizza was an instant success with the King and Queen, as well as his other patrons. He named this pizza in honor of the Queen, the Margherita.






    The first American pizzeria was opened in New York in 1905 by Gennaro Lombardi. This restaurant, Lombardi's, is still in operation today. The pizza is baked in a coal burning oven with the same recipe Gennaro Lombardi brought from Naples in 1897.
There is no doubt that Italian immigrants brought pizza to the United States, as part of their culture from the "Old World". Pizza was generally seen as a snack, not for a meal. Many Italians looked upon pizza as "peasant food"! They would use a little left over dough and tomato sauce. If available, cheese and meat was occasionally used.






Numerous Italian bakeries offered pizza to their patrons. For many years, the only place to get pizza was in an Italian neighborhood. Here, pizza remained in the "underground" for decades. An undiscovered treasure that took a World War to make it a part of the American landscape!





    Pizza was popularized in the United States by returning W.W.II veterans. These soldiers had gotten a taste of pizza while they served in Italy. Upon returning, tales of pizza flourished, and with this word of mouth advertising, a demand for pizza grew. Pizza started to become mainstream.

LES FETES De La NOUVELLE FRANCE SAQ FROM QUEBEC, CANADA!




The SAQ New France Festival

   Organized as part of Québec City’s 400th anniversary celebrations in 2008, the New France Festival was first held in 1997 at the behest of the Québec City municipal authorities who were looking to set a historic festival inspired by the lives of the first European settlers against the background of Old Québec. The event was such a success from the start that it quickly became an annual event.
   The festival sought to bring to life over a dozen sites, all in the historic district of Old Québec. It is set to the background of Québec City, one of North America’s most historic cities. The event is aimed at city residents, visitors, families, and anyone with an interest in history.
   The decision to hold ongoing activities on the sites and in the streets throughout the event is a key part of the New France Festival. Drawing on a number of artistic disciplines and a host of different approaches, history is brought to life for visitors in any number of ways. The event has come up with a style of its own by integrating a host of resources blending art and history, evoking and reconstructing past and present. The entire festival is associated with a series of ongoing activities that includes parades and performances of all sorts, which with the help of visitors help create a festival atmosphere that is one of a kind and perfect for celebrating history.






   Historical content is key to the event. A different theme is chosen each year to allow the New France Festival to come up with original ways to present every facet of history in order to shed light on a period or important historical phenomenon, allowing visitors to discover and share in a whole new world. A broad range of cultural activities with an arts and entertainment flavor are put on, and such quality content has enabled the festival to become a major event.
   Just like the enormous popular festivals of the past, the New France Festival is steeped in a fun and celebratory atmosphere. The atmosphere comes from both the planned activites and the extras who work the sites and the streets of Old Québec and quickly spreads to everyone else involved in the festival, bringing the city to life every summer.






Highlights

   Organized as part of Québec City’s 400th anniversary celebrations in 2008, the New France Festival was first held in 1997 at the behest of the Québec City municipal authorities who were looking to set a historic festival inspired by the lives of the first European settlers against the background of Old Québec. The event was such a success from the start that it quickly became an annual event.
   The festival sought to bring to life over a dozen sites, all in the historic district of Old Québec. It is set to the background of Québec City, one of North America’s most historic cities. The event is aimed at city residents, visitors, families, and anyone with an interest in history.
   The decision to hold ongoing activities on the sites and in the streets throughout the event is a key part of the New France Festival. Drawing on a number of artistic disciplines and a host of different approaches, history is brought to life for visitors in any number of ways. The event has come up with a style of its own by integrating a host of resources blending art and history, evoking and reconstructing past and present. The entire festival is associated with a series of ongoing activities that includes parades and performances of all sorts, which with the help of visitors help create a festival atmosphere that is one of a kind and perfect for celebrating history.








   Historical content is key to the event. A different theme is chosen each year to allow the New France Festival to come up with original ways to present every facet of history in order to shed light on a period or important historical phenomenon, allowing visitors to discover and share in a whole new world. A broad range of cultural activities with an arts and entertainment flavor are put on, and such quality content has enabled the festival to become a major event.
   Just like the enormous popular festivals of the past, the New France Festival is steeped in a fun and celebratory atmosphere. The atmosphere comes from both the planned activites and the extras who work the sites and the streets of Old Québec and quickly spreads to everyone else involved in the festival, bringing the city to life every summer.






Québec’s biggest family historical and cultural festival!

   One of the top ten festivals in Québec, all categories (ranked by Commerce magazine, March 2008)

Over 30,000 costumed festivalgoers
Over 500 performances of all kinds
Over 300 artists
Over 400 volunteers, including 135 volunteer performers






275,000 visitors each year

A $2.3 million operating budget from four main sources:
- Grants from all 3 levels of government
- Private sponsorship
- Public financing campaigns, notably Médaillon sales
- Funds raised through the sale of products

$13 million of economic, tourism, and social benefits for the Greater Québec City area in 2009.

Festivalgoers’ origin :
Local residents 35%
Tourists 65%

More than 80% said they were satisfied with their visit to the SAQ New France Festival!






History of New France

   New France: French colony in North America from 1534 to 1760
   New France was founded during the age of the great European discoveries in the 16th century. On a voyage of exploration, Frenchman Jacques Cartier landed in North America and “discovered” the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The territory was already populated by indigenous peoples, who called the land “Canada.” In 1534 Cartier erected a cross at Gaspé and claimed Canada in the name of the king of France. The French presence in the North Atlantic grew quickly through the activities of whalers, cod fishermen, and fur traders.
   In the early 17th century, the first permanent settlements in New France were established. In 1608 Samuel de Champlain, considered the founder of New France, built a habitation in what would later become Québec City, making it his base for trade and other economic ventures. French colonists began to settle in the St. Lawrence Valley and Acadia.






   These early settlers played a major role in New France’s development by introducing newcomers from France to the land, climate, and the aboriginal nations who made North America their home. The writings of missionaries living among the First Nations were another source of information.
   As European explorers ventured further and further afield, trade thrived and new towns and trading posts sprang up. Although they attracted colonists and their descendents, the colony’s numbers remained too small to make much headway.
In the late 17th century, faced with the inability of private interests to properly administer the colony, New France’s future was placed in the hands of the king.    Louis XIV put a new administrative structure in place and the colony thrived anew as exploration, commercial undertakings, and settlement initiatives resumed.







   In the growing colony, tradesmen and small farmers made up the bulk of the French population, along with merchants, soldiers, laborers, members of the middle class, several nobles and clergymen, the Filles du Roy, coureurs des bois, and a few slaves.French North America reached its peak in the 18th century. By this time, its boundaries had expanded considerably to encompass over half of the continent, extending all the way from Hudson Bay to Louisiana, and including a goodly portion of the present-day Maritime provinces, the entire St. Lawrence Valley, the Great Lakes Basin, and the Mississippi Valley. Like the other European powers of the time, France hoped to find a route across the continent to the Western Sea, and on to Asia.
However, the British colonies, already a threat, became too populous and encircled New France. In 1713, France ceded Newfoundland, Acadia, and Hudson Bay to England under the Treaty of Utrecht. In the time of peace that followed, New France’s economy took off once more, allowing France to prepare for war.
And it was not long before war came. New France was conquered in 1760 and handed over to England once and for all three years later under the Treaty of Paris. Only Louisiana remained in French hands, but it too was ultimately ceded to the United States in 1803.





Québec Giants  
   The family of giants is spread over many continents. Distant cousins can be found in South America, Africa and Asia. In Europe alone, giants may be found in England, Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Portugal and the Netherlands. The Québec City giants, unique in North America, have now added a branch to the family tree.
   The family of giants is spread over many continents. Distant cousins can be found in South America, Africa and Asia. In Europe alone, giants may be found in England, Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Portugal and the Netherlands. The Québec City giants, unique in North America, have now added a branch to the family tree.The characters brought to life by the giants typify the cultural, historical identity of the celebration that is the New France Festival. Since 2002, one or more giants have been added to the family each year and then presented to the public during the parades.At the moment, thirdteen giants proudly represent the festival.

  • Champlain
  • Grand Cru
  • Belle Gueule
  • Louis Ango de Maizerets
  • Monique Purelaine
  • Marie Victoire
  • Le Grand Esprit des Nations
  • Nicolas dit Noble Cœur
  • Émeline et Louis
  • Capitaine Vaillant
  • Monsieur du Talion
     

ChamplainminiChamplain


   The Champlain Giant is the largest of the Québec giants! Standing 6m tall, it takes two people to carry him.
Above all else, Champlain is a cartographer and throughout his whole life he burns with the desire to find a passage through which to cross the continent from coast to coast. His skirt draws its inspiration from one of Champlain’s many maps, with his illustrations and writing carefully reproduced like a timeline, highlighting some of the historic events witnessed by Québec City. Finally, Champlain is represented in bronze, symbolic of the numerous statues erected in his honour, underscoring the role he plays in the country’s collective memory.


grandCrue_imgGrand Cru

   The "Grand Cru" giant has acquired wisdom and maturity. He is a true connoisseur, having benefited from the excellent advice of the SAQ. Sensitive, competent, with a streak of humour... balance is everything when it comes to making a Grand Cru!
   He has a light body, his dress made up of vegetables recalling the variety of products on offer at the SAQ. His texture is composed of natural fibres, combining flexibility and rigidity.
   His is a happy marriage of spicy aromas and the scent of fruits and vegetables. His perfume evokes childhood memories, encouraging us to join the dance and follow him for the parade.
His colours respect natural hues, moving from golden yellow with a hint of green, to a purple-blue shade of ruby, while conserving intensity and harmony.

 

Belle_GueuleBelle Gueule

   The “Belle Gueule" Giant joined the event in 2006. A friendly monk, he is the latest addition to the family. He spends his days brewing beer, with his body language revealing the care he puts into his craft.






Louis-Ango_de_MaizeretsLouis Ango de Maizerets

   This giant was designed and created in the image of Louis Ango de Maizerets. He was supervisor at the Québec Seminary when the institution purchased part of the Notre-Dame-des-Anges seigniory in 1705. 5m tall, he played an important role in the history of the Domaine de Maizerets.




Monique_Purelaine

Monique Purelaine

   The giant from the Limoilou part of town symbolizes its history and culture: a young mother in her 30s representing the generations of working-class people who came to live in the area at start of the century.
   Pregnant, this giant carries the future of a part of Québec City within her. She is represented by way of a housewife to highlight her role and importance, as well as the responsibility of so many women, married to working men, through whom everything began.
   Monique Purelaine also symbolizes the cultural aspect of Limoilou through her apron, inspired by the work and the colours of the artist Pellan. This piece of clothing is made up of a mosaic of historical symbols representing different facets of this area of town that has always been rich in diversity.


MarieVictoireMarie Victoire

   Marie-Victoire symbolizes all the women of New France - the grandmother, the mother, the wife, the daugther - who contributed to the demographic development of the new territory. Even though she symbolizes both past and present, the child she is holding in her arms gives us a glimpse of the future as the colony continues to evolve towards prosperity.




Grands_esprit_des_nationsThe Great Spirit of the Nations

   The Great Spirit of the Nations proudly represents Amerindian cultures, paying tribute to the First Nations, the country's first inhabitants. The character of a woman underlines the matriarchal predominance in such cultures.
The Great Spirit of the Nations proudly represents Amerindian cultures, paying tribute to the First Nations, the country's first inhabitants. The character of a woman underlines the matriarchal predominance in such cultures. The clothing of the Great Spirit of the Nations refers to many symbols precious to the Amerindian cultures: circles, the four elements (water, land, air and fire), the concepts of life and death (marked at the same time by the presence of spirits and by things that have belonged to the deceased such as his weapons, tobacco, etc.)


NicolasNicolas dit Noble Cœur

   The Nicolas dit Noble Cœur giant is a tribute to the soldiers of the Carignan-Sallières Regiment. It was the first regiment in New France and many of its soldiers decided to remain in the colony, becoming lords of the New World's seigniories. Symbolically, we could consider Nicolas dit Noble Cœur and Marie-Victoire to be the colony's mother and father. The Nicolas dit Noble Cœur giant is a tribute to the soldiers of the Carignan-Sallières Regiment. It was the first regiment in New France and many of its soldiers decided to remain in the colony, becoming lords of the New World's seigniories. Symbolically, we could consider Nicolas dit Noble Cœur and Marie-Victoire to be the colony's mother and father. This giant, representing a soldier of the period, wears a uniform that includes a map of France upon which the origins of the regiment's soldiers are marked. Nicolas dit Noble Cœur highlights the patronymic ties between France and New France, but also the genealogical ties, as many children born in New France were descended from the soldiers of the Carignan-Sallières regiment.



EmelineLouisÉmeline et Louis

   Émeline and Louis, the first giants created by the SAQ New France Festival, make a fine couple. They were created in partnership with Louisiana and inspired by the two legendary Acadian characters Évangéline and Gabriel, whose story is told so memorably in Henry Longfellow's epic poem Evangeline.
Émeline and Louis, the first giants created by the SAQ New France Festival, make a fine couple. They were created in partnership with Louisiana and inspired by the two legendary Acadian characters Évangéline and Gabriel, whose story is told so memorably in Henry Longfellow's epic poem Evangeline. Separated during the Deportation of 1755, they symbolize an eternal but impossible love, a love that not even death can put an end to. Separately, each giant is a symbol in itself: Émeline, with her embroidery in her hands, symbolises the patience and fidelity of love, and the purity of the virgin. Louis resembles an oak tree, the same type of tree where, according to the legend, Évangeline finds Gabriel again. Louis typifies the strength and longevity of love, a symbol of immortality.


capitaineVaillant_imgCapitaine Vaillant

   Captain Vaillant represents the father of the New France explorers and typifies the exploring spirit. His head is made of a globe on which you can see a ship; he holds a telescope. His robe is made of multiple parchments related to various subjects. They look like the notebooks of the great explorers, whose sketches and notes allowed them to transmit and store many observations about the fauna and flora of the New World.



Monsieur_du_TalionMonsieur du Talion

   Monsieur du Talion is an allegory of the judicial system as applied in New France and a direct reference to the famous Law of Retaliation (Loi du Talion). He symbolizes the hangman, in front of whom, all too frequently, many criminal affairs were settled.
   Monsieur du Talion is an allegory of the judicial system as applied in New France and a direct reference to the famous Law of Retaliation (Loi du Talion). He symbolizes the hangman, in front of whom, all too frequently, many criminal affairs were settled. At the time, justice still relied upon questioning and torture, considering a person guilty until they could prove their innoncence. With no shortage of people who had been found guilty to be punished, hangmen, recruited from among those sentenced to death, represented the arm of the exemplary justice. Monsieur du Talion, wearing many instruments of torture, is a tribute to those who were forced to torture prisoners. The upper part of his body is carved out of stone, indicating the unshakable nature of the task he is to carry out.


What is a Giant ?


Giants represent whole regions, cities, and communities.


grandCrue_img Champlainmini MarieVictoire






   Carried giants can be traced back to 18th century Portugal.  Originally, Giants appeared in Western Europe to add color and educational value to communal and religious processions. From the 15th century onward, these giant figures were used to illustrate scenes from the bible, tales from the Golden Legend, and epic poems. With time, the Giants changed in meaning and came to represent regions, cities, and neighborhoods. Adapted to ideas of different eras, Giants moved away from processions to become increasingly profane figures used in carnivals, village fetes, and religious festivals, too.
   In Europe, where they have existed for over seven centuries, Giants took part in many popular festivals all year long, as well as parades and church celebrations. Giants were not limited to their own countries and traveled abroad, revealing their wide-ranging styles and sometimes marrying into other European cultures. They were also used to celebrate births, baptisms, and wedding anniversaries, retaining their ties to traditions, collective memory, and community identity.
   Today, giants meet regularly at international festivals and parades offering innovative insights to their own culture and history. They weigh more than 45 kg (100 lbs.) and are usually carried on a person's back.
   In Québec City, more than a dozen Giants have been created since 2002. The most imposing of them being Samuel de Champlain, the city’s founder; you’ll find him at the heart of the celebration!

Costumes in New France

Costumes in New France - LES BEAUX ATOURS (1675-1715)

1. Commoners
2. Bourgeoisie
3. Nobility
4. Lexicon

Commoners

   In New France, clothing for both men and women of the lower classes was generally made with rough or fine woolen fabrics (wool and cotton weaves).

Men

le_peuple   MenHair was worn long and natural, often covered by a (usually red) toque, a type of woolen hat. Shirts were made of white cotton with collars and buttoned cuffs. Pants were made of woolen fabrics, featured button flies, and were fitted at the knee.
   Men also wore waistcoats, which were buttoned at the front and featured pockets and basques*. They also wore ties of fine canvass tied at the neck, with both ends falling over the chest.
   They wore tailored or knitted long wool stockings held up by garters and leather shoes that tied at the top with a metal buckle. Some also wore clogs.

Women

   Women covered their hair with quilted bonnets tied under the chin. These bonnets were made of quilted canvass and always worn under a head covering known as a cornette*, while other bonnets, such as single or double rowed bonnets*, were worn alone.
   Women wore canvass or muslin neckerchiefs. White cotton blouses were short sleeved and open at the neck.
Bodices were fitted garments with basques* and sleeves tied at the front or back.
Skirts, worn over petticoats, were long and generous and made of woolen fabric.
Aprons were made of heavy canvass or dark woolen fabric. Women always wore white aprons in public.
Stockings were made of wool and held by garters at the knee. They were worn with shoes or clogs.
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Bourgeoisie

   The clothing of the better off was tailored from silk, velvet, or beautiful woolen fabrics. The bourgeoisie had many more colors to choose from.

Menla_bourgeoisie

 MenWigs were the height of fashion, along with canes and gloves. Three-cornered hats were adorned with feathers.
 Shirts were white and made of fine canvass, featuring jabots* and oversleeves*.
 Pants were tailored from rich cloth and ended at the knees. They boasted beautiful metal buttons that were both decorative and practical.
 Men’s waistcoats, which featured embroideries and braids, were worn under ornate justaucorps*.
Long, straight ties were made of muslin and wrapped around the neck with their knotted ends falling over the chest.
   Stockings were made of red or pink silk. Shoes had square toes and high heels.

Women

Ladies wore their hair in the Fontange* style.
Their white blouses were of fine canvass adorned with lace collars and engageantes*.
Fitted dresses featured short, narrow sleeves.
Dress coats were left open at the front to reveal ladies’ stomachers*. The bottoms of the dresses were raised and pinned at the back.
Skirts were ornately decorated with pleats and appliqués.
Silk stockings and shoes were covered in rich cloth.
Ladies often carried fans or parasols or wore gloves.
When indoors or in the garden, they would wear lace aprons.

 

Nobility

   The ornate clothing of the nobility was made of luxurious fabrics well beyond the reach of the other classes, who had to settle for imitating the cut of their clothing.

Menla_noblesse

MenWigs, known as in folio, were so cumbersome that noblemen had to carry their hats under their arms.
Their white shirts featured jabots* and cuffs*. Jabots, cuffs, and ties were adorned with the finest Point de France or Point de Venise lace.
A Steinkerque-style tie was wound twice around the neck and its ends were inserted into the sixth buttonhole of the justaucorps*.
Vests were embroidered with gold and silver thread. Justaucorps* worn on top were decorated with golden braids and ribbons.
Men wore pants of the finest figured silk*.
Stockings were made of silk, and shoes covered in figured silk*.
Men carried canes and wore gloves.

Women

   Ladies wore their hair in the Fontange* style, and the lace they wore was decorated with butterflies or hornets made of gems.
Their white shirts of fine canvass were open at the neck and adorned with frilled lace.
Engageantes* were decorated with Point de France or Point de Venise lace.
Dresses were tailored from the finest figured silk* and ornately decorated with gold and silver thread.
Skirts were adorned with appliqués and fringes* and worn over layered petticoats.
Women protected their pale skin from the sun with gloves and parasols.
Their stockings were made of silk, and their shoes covered with figured silk*.
Note: From the age of six, children from all social classes dressed as adults, according to social class.

Lexicon

  • Basques : Lower part of an item of clothing, flared according to the fashion of the day
  • Cornette : A head covering whose long tails could be tied up or left free.
  • Engageantes : Fixed, funnel-shaped lace decorations at the end of the sleeves on a woman’s garment.
  • Figured silk : A rich silk fabric adorned with embossed designs of gold and silver thread.
  • Fontange hairstyle : High curls above the forehead with two locks forming kiss curls on the forehead. The hair was swept up into a bun at the back, with curls falling forward onto the forehead and down onto the nape of the neck. A bonnet covered the bun, and large folds of lace were raised into a high structure atop the head.
  • Fringes : Loose ends of cloth at the edges of a cut.
  • Jabots : Lace (or muslin) decorations sewn around the shirt collar and spread across the chest.
  • Justaucorps : Embroidered garment covered with braids and ribbons. It was taken in at the waist and extended to the knees. It featured basques, banded cuffs, and pockets placed high or low on the garment, depending on the fashion of the day. The bottom was split down the back and along the sides.
  • Oversleeve : Detachable decorations adorning the cuffs of a man’s shirt.
  • Quilted bonnet : A quilted bonnet comprising three pieces (the center and both sides). The outside was made of canvass and lined with fustian (a cotton fabric from the Orient that could be plain or feature a striped or moiré design).Cotton was inserted between these two layers, and the whole thing was pinned to keep the cotton in place.
  • Single or double rowed bonnet : A bonnet adorned with light or dark colored bands of fabrics surrounding the face.
  • Stomacher : An ornate or embroidered triangular garment used to cover the lacings of a corset.