Friday, July 7, 2017


   The Paris Air Show (Salon International de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace, Paris-Le Bourget) is an international trade fair for the aerospace business. It is held at Le Bourget Airport,  North Paris, France every odd year, alternating both with the Farnborough International Exhibition and Flying Display and the Internationale Luft- und Raumfahrtausstellung Berlin.
   The Paris Air Show is a commercial air show, organised by the French aerospace industry's body the Groupement des Industries Françaises Aéronautiques et Spatiales (GIFAS) whose main purpose is to demonstrate military and civilian aircraft to potential customers. It is one of the most prestigious in the world; traditionally, some major sales contracts are announced during the show as part of the corporate communication of the manufacturers. All major international manufacturers, as well as the military forces of several countries, attend the Paris Air Show.

One of the early exhibits

   In addition to industrial visitors, during the closing days of the salon, the show welcomes a large number of public visitors from France and many other European countries, when admission is not limited to visitors with industry affiliations.


   The Paris Air Show traces its history back to the first decade of the 20th century. In 1908 there was a section of the Paris Automobile Show dedicated to aircraft. The following year, an air show was held at the Grand Palais from September 25th to  October 17th, during which 100,000 visitors turned out to see products and innovations from 380 exhibitors.  There were four further shows before the First World War.  The show re-started in 1919, and from 1924 it was held every two years before being interrupted again by the Second World War. It re-started again in 1946 and since 1949, has been held in every odd year.

   The air show continued to be held at the Grand Palais, and from 1949 flying demonstrations were staged at Orly Airport. In 1953, the show was relocated from the Grand Palais to Le Bourget. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the show emerged as a powerful international rival to the Farnborough Air Show. The 1971 show featured a full scale mock-up of an Airbus A300 while the new DC-10 and Lockheed Tristar were present at the 1973 edition. Among major accidents, there were two crashes of Convair B-58 Hustler bombers, in 1961 (during aerobatics) and 1965 (during landing). The show suffered its worst accident in 1973 when a Tupolev Tu-144 crashed killing the six crew and eight people on the ground.


   At the Paris Air Show on June 3, 1973, the first Tupolev Tu-144 production aircraft (registration 77102) crashed. While in the air, it undertook a violent downward manoeuvre. Trying to pull out of the subsequent dive, the plane disintegrated and crashed, destroying 15 houses and killing all six on board and eight on the ground.
   The causes of this incident remain controversial. Theories included: The Tu-144 was forced to avoid a French Mirage chase plane which was attempting to photograph its canards, which were very advanced for the time, and that the French and Soviet governments colluded with each other to cover up such details; that the cause of this accident was due to changes made by the ground engineering team to the auto-stabilisation input controls prior to the second day of display flights. These changes were intended to allow the Tu-144 to outperform Concorde in the display circuit; the deliberate misinformation on the part of the Anglo-French team. The main thrust of this theory was that the Anglo-French team knew that the Soviet team were planning to steal the design plans of Concorde, and the Soviets were allegedly passed false blueprints with a flawed design.


   An-225 with Buran at Le Bourget Airfield, 1989 The "38th Paris International Air and Space Show" or "1989 Paris Air Show", featured a variety of aerospace technology from NATO and Warsaw pact nations.  A MiG 29 crashed during a demonstration flight with no loss of life. The then Soviet space shuttle Buran and its carrier Antonov An-225 was displayed outside of Russia at this show.


   An AH-64 Apache at the 2005 Paris Air showThe 2005 show, held June 13th-19th, witnessed the return of American companies in large numbers following the downscaling of their presence in 2003 in relation to the Iraq War. Another strain in relations in 2005 was the recently launched World Trade Organisation litigation, which involved action filed by the United States against the EU member States alleging WTO-inconsistent subsidies to Airbus.
   The Airbus A380 opened the show with a flying display


   The 2007 Paris Air showThe Airbus A330 MRTT tanker/transport, Antonov An-148 regional jet, Bell/Agusta BA609 tilt-trotor, Socata TBM 850 and the S4 Ehécatl unmanned aircraft were presented for the first time.


   In 2009, the Show marked a hundred years of technological innovation in aeronautics and space conquest. The event was held from 15 to 21 June, at Le Bourget.

   A memorial service was held at the air show for the victims of Air France Flight 447.

    The airshow takes place this year from Monday 20 june to Sunday 26 June 2011 and from 9:30 a.m. to 6 p.m.


   Today's popular thinking classes the witch as a figure of diverse fantasy. In the main, a witch is considered to be female with images ranging from the scary Wicked Witch of The West in comic books, to the cute teenager who casts spells from her bedroom; and from the black leather clad sexy witch to the evil old hag who creates misery. Of course, none of these concepts reflect today's customs and traditions of the Craft and hardly ever do they reflect its female practitioners or indeed, allow for the male witch. It is, then, quite surprising to learn that witches belong to one of the World's fastest growing religions and that the religion has a healthy mix of female and male members.
   Modern witchcraft is often referred to as Wicca or The Craft and participants as Wiccans or witches. Wicca, a pagan religion, generally worships a Goddess and a God and respects the polarity between the feminine and the masculine. According to this religion, deity is immanent within nature and therefore, Wiccans celebrate seasons and cross quarter days, when they honour the planet and its forces, working with spiritual energies in harmony with nature. Some witches practice in groups, known as covens and others who work alone, are known as solitary witches. All believe in the power of the Moon, the coven based attending a monthly gathering when the Moon is full, whilst solitaries carry out certain practices alone. All witches actively take part in the rites and rituals and continue to develop their spirituality. Often, on completing their basic training, witches choose to specialise in a 'magickal discipline' such as divination, herbalism, astrology, reiki, talismanic magick or crystal healing. These skills are then passed on to fellow witches for their betterment, as there is a strong ethos of love towards one's fellow witches, within the Craft.

   There are no absolute hard and fast rules in Wicca, except perhaps for the Wiccan Rede, which is its central principle, stating amongst other things, "An' it harm none, do what thou wilt." This does not mean that Wiccan's do not have similar beliefs, as between 1973 and 1974, in America, an attempt was made to define this common ground. A 'Council of American Witches' was formed and Carl Llewelyn Weschcke, after the Council's much debate and searching for agreement, came up with a thirteen-point definition of Wiccans. This, a broad belief system which most Wiccans could subscribe to, sprung a number of traditions, of which many were coven based but could be easily adapted for solitary use. Mentioning some of the better-know traditions, would include Gardnerians, Alexandrians, Saex-Wiccans, Cochranians and Faery Wiccans. The Solitary, non tradition-based ones, included Hedge and Cyber Witches. Most traditions' practices are quite fluid, allowing for freedom of expression, creativity and invention, there being few hard and fast rules and very little dogma.

Some Wiccan Traditions and their Founders

   Gardnerian Witchcraft, founded by Gerald Brousseau Gardner. Gardner is considered by many to have been the Founding Father of Wicca. Generally a coven tradition but adapted also by some solitaries.
   Alexandrian Wicca, founded by Alex and Maxine Sanders and established in the 1960s, is a coven based tradition.
   Saex-Wicca, founded by Raymond and Rosemary Buckland, who went to the U.S.A. from England, in 1962. This tradition has no oath of secrecy and no degree structure as do the others. This tradition concentrates on Saxon deities, where the God rules the Winter and the Goddess, the Summer.

   Faery Wicca, also referred to as the Fae, Fey, Feri, Faerie, Fairy and Fairie witchcraft, was founded by Victor and Cora Anderson in the 1950s. Victor was mainly responsible for writing the rituals for this tradition, which he initially based on fairy folklore and beliefs. Initially small and secretive, many of Faery Wicca's basics have reached a wide audience, mainly through the writings of Starhawk, its most famous initiate.
   Cochranian Witchcraft, was founded by Robert Cochrane, a poet who was initiated into a hereditary coven at the age of five. This is a coven based tradition.
   Dianic Wicca, founded in the 1960s by Zsuzsanna Budapest, is a feminist religion and for women only. They honour the deities in their feminine aspect, and never honour the God in their rituals.
   Hedge or Kitchen Witches are solitary practitioners, and best described as persons who practice from home. These witches do not attend coven meetings and in general commonly work with a familiar spirit and incorporate the use of herbs, trance and shamanic techniques such as drumming. The Hedge Witch often works for the benefit of the planet, similar to an eco-warrior, and uses natural objects only, for ritual and magic work.

   Celtic Witches... this is an earth-based tradition, practiced by covens and solitaries alike and was formed from a diverse blend of beliefs and practices from pre-Christian, Celtic and Gaulish people of Northern Europe.  This tradition links closely with the Druids, the 'Wise Men' and 'Priests' of these ancient pagans.

   Hereditary Wicca, is not a tradition so much as a reflective term for the fact that their practice is based on a direct familial lineage, either alone or within a coven. Some Hereditary Witches claim completely independent lineage from modern Wicca. The tradition, according to some, is either based on familial fortune telling, the practice of cunning, folk magick or forms of shamanism, and not Wicca.


  A little known fact is that fifty-four of the fifty-six signatories of the Declaration of Independence were believers. These men understood the powerful influence that the Savior God had on each and every individual who had signed this and pledged allegiance to it. Their signatures could have possibly sealed their deaths and they were all fully aware of it.
   In their framework of the Declaration, they sought God's wisdom in creating a document that would become this great nation's most important testament. Little did the signers of the Declaration of Independence know that with the signing of this Declaration, the birth of a new nation had begun, and "the shot that was heard around the world", the first shot fired against a British soldier, would be the beginning of the end for Great Britain's rule over the American colonies.

The Declaration of Independence

   With the signing of the Declaration of Independence, on July 4th, 1776, the United States of America declared to England, its demand for independence from England. The Declaration contained two parts. One was the preamble, which stated that man was due his god-given rights to "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness". The second part of the Declaration was a list of grievances against England and a declaration that the American colonies should be separate from Great Britain.

   The Declaration of Independence was actually first debated on June 7th, 1776, in the
Continental Congress. On June 11th of this same year, the Congress chose a committee to write a formal document to prepare as a formal declaration of separation from England. The original committee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, John Adams and Robert Livingston. The Committee selected Thomas Jefferson to write the first draft which was to be presented to the Continental Congress.
think rather than calling it the "4th of July", it is actually Independence Day. We don't call Christmas the "25th of December". I believe it is more honorable to call it what it is: Independence Day.  It rightfully ought to follow as Independence Day and dependence upon god.

The First Draft of the Declaration of Independence

   The original author of the Declaration of Independence,
Thomas Jefferson, used much of the language of the English philosopher, John Locke (1632-1704). Locke's philosophy was sweeping through the American colonies at the time. Locke's assertion was that man's natural rights were a right to have a free life, liberty to live that life, and happiness, which Locke felt was even more important than a guarantee of being able to own personal property.

   John Adams and Benjamin Franklin made some minor changes in the language of the Declaration before it was submitted to the Congress on July 2nd, 1776. Congress adopted Richard Henry Lee's resolution, which officially called for the separation from England. Part of what was taken out of the Declaration was a strong statement condemning slave trade, since Thomas Jefferson was a slave owner. The Declaration may have never passed the Continental Congress if this prohibition of slavery was left in; because many Southern colonists already owned slaves and a majority of Northern merchants had ships that were operated by slaves. After this revision, the Declaration was approved by Congress on July 4th, 1776. It wasn't until July 8th that the Declaration was made public by reading it aloud from the balcony of Independence Hall in Philadelphia.


Hidden Identities

   The Continental Congress worried about the safety of those who had signed the Declaration, so the names of the men who signed it were not made public until January 18th, 1777.  The original Declaration of Independence today is displayed at the Library of Congress. The real author of the Declaration of Independence may have actually been Benjamin Franklin, who in 1775, spoke about the need for a "United Colonies of North America", which was to be an alignment for common defense, where each of the 13 colonies would have its own territories and be independent of the other colonies. Congress would only have authority of affairs outside of each colony. The colonists were still concerned about a central government having too much power of the colonies, since that is the reason many of the colonists came to the New World in the first place, to escape a strong ruling government over all the people.

   A national revival is not scheduled for a certain date like a church posts a sign that a revival is coming up on such and such a date. No, revival begins with prayer and supplication to God. Revival starts with me and with you, in the heart and with prayer. This nation needs a national revival like the Great Revivals in the 18th and 19th Century.
   A pastor in the 1700's preached expositional preaching out of the Bible. In time, pastors began to start questioning the deity of Jesus and the veracity or truthfulness of the Bible. At the same time, the culture, not ironically, started to deteriorate morally. One way to turn this nation back into a prosperous one is found in the Old Testament and the movement towards prosperity starts on our knees. God changes not and will answer a national repentance today as He did thousands of years ago. If we, as a nation, and if all individual Christians would return to the Lord our God in prayer, these words can ring true again. They are still as relevant today for America as they were then for ancient Israel: "I will hear from heaven, will forgive their sin and will heal their land" (2 Chron. 7:14). So pray for God once again to bless America.


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   When you think of July holidays, Independence Day is probably the first that comes to mind. There are a lot of holidays in July; here is a list of observances to celebrate each day this month - and, of course, ideas for clebrating them.

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July 1: Zip Code Day - Honor this holiday by memorizing the zip codes for all the neighboring cities.
July 2: I Forgot Day - Today you don't need an excuse; just say, "Sorry - I forgot."

July 3: Compliment Your Mirror Day - Take a good look in the mirror and compliment the person you see on the other side.

July 4: Independence from Meat Day - No, it's not just Independence Day on the 4th of July; it's also Independence from Meat Day!

July 6: Take Your Webmaster to Lunch Day - I wonder who made up this holiday...?

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July 7: Chocolate Day - Finally, it's here! You can eat all the chocolate you want - for the whole day - without the guilt.

July 8: SCUD Day (Savor the Comic, Unplug the Drama) - Sounds like a scuddy holiday.

July 9: Martyrdom of the Bab - I was curious who the Bab was, so I looked it up. No wonder I didn't know what it was; Martyrdom of the Bab is a Baha'i holiday. Silly me.

July 10: Don't Step on a Bee Day - Every day should be don't step on a bee day. I've done it. It hurts.

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July 11: World Population Day - You make up less than a billionth of the world population. Don't you feel special?

July 12: International Town Criers Day - I bet you didn't know the town crier had a day of his own, did you?

July 13: Embrace Your Geekness Day - Come on, we all have an inner geekness. Embrace it!

July 15: Gummi Worm Day - Mmm...another excuse to celebrate sugar!

July 16: Hot Dog Night  - How will you celebrate Hot Dog Night 2010?

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July 17: Yellow Pig Day - If you can't find a yellow pig, just paint one yellow. I'm sure no one will notice.
July 18: National Ice Cream Day  - Have it any way you want.

July 19: National Get Out of the Dog House Day - What were you doing in there, anyway?

July 20: National Lollipop Day - Jeez, whoever makes up the national holidays sure likes his or her sugar! I won't complain, though.

July 21: Legal Drinking Age Day - Hmm, I wonder what you're going to do on Legal Drinking Age Day?

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July 22: Rat-catchers Day - What would we do without them??

July 23: Gorgeous Grandma Day - To celebrate all you hot grandmas out there!

July 24: Tell an Old Joke Day - Tell everyone you see the oldest, moldiest joke you've got.

July 25: Thread the Needle Day - Apparently this is a game, but I've never played it.

July 26: One Voice - You've only got one voice, so be sure to use it.

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July 27: Take Your Houseplant for a Walk Day - What?? You've never taken your houseplant for a walk? No wonder it's getting so big.

July 28: National Milk Chocolate Day - Wow, are there really two days in a month dedicated to chocolate?!

July 29: Rain Day - I wonder if it always rains on July 29th...

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July 30: Cheesecake Day - This is my favorite, so make sure you don't forget to celebrate Cheesecake Day.